Replacing a Long Lost Shirt

When I went tubing last month, I lost my shirt in the river. It was one of the second amendment shirts that my brother bought me. I took the shirt off because it became wet, and had it in my lap. My inner tube went over a bump and the shirt flew right out of my lap and into the water. I was moving so fast that I couldn’t catch it or go back for it. I really liked that shirt, but now it’s long gone. I had to buy a new shirt from the same place where my brother bought mine.

My brother bought the shirt for me because of how much I always talk about the second amendment. Continue reading “Replacing a Long Lost Shirt”

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Virtual currency skyrocketed, the achievements earned 16 billion annual myth

Bernstein said that the bitter continent in 2017 operating profit of 30 billion to 4 billion US dollars; the same period, chip maker giant Nvidia’s operating profit of 3 billion US dollars, the lower limit of the aforementioned range.

First, difficult to re-stealth wealth empire

If it were not for Bernstein’s February 21 report, the bitter continent could still be “muffled” and not known to the general public.

According to CNBC, assuming a conservative estimate of 75% of the gross margin and 65% of the operating margin, Bernstein said that the operating income of the Bitcoin continent in 2017 will be between US $ 3 billion and US $ 4 billion. In the same period, , Chip maker giant Nvidia (Nvidia) operating profit of 3 billion US dollars, the lower limit of the aforementioned range.

NVIDIA took this step for 24 years, while the bit continent only took four years, Bernstein said.

If the above estimates are accurate, according to the exchange rate at the time of this article’s announcement (March 2), the operating profit of the bit continent for 2017 will be 19 billion yuan to 25.4 billion yuan. If the blockchain and virtual assets are also included in the financial technology category, it is widely acknowledged that the financial profit of the financial technology giant in China is $ 13,189 million in 2017, which is dwarfed by the mainland continent, not to mention the past profits Cash loan company.

However, the bit mainland told the media Bernstein’s prediction is not correct, and said that in 2017 operating income of about 2.5 billion US dollars (about 15.9 billion yuan). Even so, the bitter continent has become a wealth empire that can not be ignored.

Second, with mining machine landing “New World”

Said the bit continent, can not get around its helm – Wu Ji cold.

He was born in 1986 and graduated from Peking University with a double degree in economics and psychology. He was a former private equity fund investment analyst / investment manager. Participate in the Bitcoin community in 2011. She is the co-founder of Babbitt, a key media in the blockchain and digital asset community in China. She is believed to have translated the bitcoin white paper as earliest in China. In 2013, she founded the Bitmain company, Director and Co-CEO, Mainly responsible for marketing, sales, strategic investment and investor relations.

One possible way for Wu to complete the accumulation of primitive wealth is to invest in cat roaster, which has brought tens of millions of returns to it. At that time in 2012, roasted cats (Chiang Hsin-yu, friedcat, graduated from CUHK Junior Class) raised bitcoin shares in bitcoin forums (which is considered as China’s first tokens issuance project) Into the cold into the tens of thousands of dollars. Another possible route is to invest bitcoin. Legend has it that he saved his first pot of gold by investing all his savings in Bitcoin through Taobao and the Mt.Gox Exchange in 2011.

He got acquainted with the chip specialist Jennifer (now the CEO of Bote continent) in the streets when the clerk at DivaIP was selling set-top boxes to Wu Ji-han. They co-founded the bitter continent.

This is exactly what kind of company?

According to the Bote continent official website, it is headquartered in Beijing Ao North Science and Technology Park (Orson Park northeast), in Chengdu, Qingdao, Shenzhen, Wuhan and other places with R & D center at the same time, in Hong Kong, the United States California, Israel Tel Aviv, Netherlands Amsterdam To set up branch offices.

Bit mainland focused on high-level, low-power custom chip design and development, successful design, production of a variety of ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) custom chips and integrated systems, sales and service network covering more than 100 countries and regions. Among them, ASIC chip is suitable for bitcoin mining, which has a large amount of computation, repeatability and so on.

Specifically, its products and services are as follows:

  • Hardware device support – Antminer (ant miner, not only to dig bitcoin, you can also dig Litecoin and the DST. The mainstream S9 ant miner contains 189 ASIC chips .Motor is loaded with strong power chip Machine, mining body. Mining refers to the virtual currency through the calculation of the right to claim in order to obtain virtual currency rewards.);
  • Bottom Agreement Support – (Mining Pool. Pool refers to the collection of mining machines, mining machine distributed according to the distribution of profits);
  • SHA256 high-speed integrated computing solutions – Antpool (Ant pool, referred to as Ant pool);
  • Cloud Computing Services for Overseas Users – HashNest.

Bernstein said the main income from the bitter mainland comes from the sale of mines, “and it adjusts the price of miners based on the price of bitcoin.” It estimates that the bit continent has 70-80% market share in bitcoin mining machines and ASICs.

Ant Mines can dig three kinds of virtual currency in 2017 there has been a surge in the environment, the bit of continental wealth engine has strong support. Among them, Zero One Finance calculated in accordance with Coinmarketcap data, denominated in US dollars, bitcoin rose more than 12 times, once more than 17,000 US dollars / piece, the current market value of nearly 1.2 trillion yuan; Litecoin rose more than 50 times, reaching nearly 86 Times

Bit mainland mining machine “Legion” has far left behind competitors: roasted cat running in 2014, has not yet appeared, the production of roasted cat miner’s Shenzhen Bit Springs Information Technology Co., Ltd. is no longer dazzling; the first Taiwan ASIC mining machine – Avalon mining machine manufacturer Jia Nan Yun Chi has not successfully landed on the new board, 2017 revenue more than 2 billion yuan; butterfly mining machine has no audio …

Third, forked bitcoin

According to the “Finance and Economics” to sort out, because the 1MB block is too small, less expensive to block the block by malicious transactions, other transactions can not be normal, bitcoin expansion, but there are differences in the technical route.

The Core team of bitcoin core developers advocated Segregated Witness (Segwit) and set up a lightning network outside the main chain. The former divides the block information into transaction information and witness information. The main chain only carries the transaction information , The latter put the transaction outside the traditional block. The expansion needs to be 51% computational support, which means that the master of the power of the discourse weight.

However, “big mine owner” Wu Jihan failed to reach a consensus with the Core faction, and he hoped to play a more powerful advantage. On August 1, 2017, bitcoin led Bitcoin Cash (BCH, formerly known as BCC) under the control of the bit continent. The main difference between BCH and Bitcoin (BTC) is that the former has a larger block size than the latter (1MB) and is currently scalable up to 8MB (up to 32MB as early as May 15). BTC and BCH fans each think they are “real bitcoin.”

Wu Jihan’s mine and mine machine has not given up digging bitcoin. According to the block network data, as of the publication date of this article (March 2) within a month, the bit mainland China’s own pool (ants pool, and its investment pool viaBTC market share of the force ( The number of blocks dug into the whole area) were 17%, 13.32% and 11.93% respectively, ranking No. 1, No. 2 and No. 4 respectively, with a total share of 42.25%. It is reported that Zhongtangzhaoer owns the mine pool which is also inextricably linked to the mainland of bitter China. Its market share in the same period was 13.32%.

In BCH power, Wu Jihan also has a considerable voice. As of this writing (March 2), Ant pool,, viaBTC, market share of 11.6%, 2.7%, 2.5%, 2.4%.

Recently, head Cobra and Wu Jihan on Twitter for a war of words. Tencent “Deep Web” claimed that the site was originally registered by Satomi Nakamoto and Martti Malmi (bitcoin developer) to provide bitcoin white papers and other content, and prior to the disappearance of Nakamoto, the management of the domain name was handed over to two administrators They Theymos and Cobra.

Cobra’s ability to focus on Wu Ji-han is a departure from the original intention of Bitcoin to be decentralized, calling for a change in Bitcoin’s consensus mechanism, Proof of Work (PoW). Wu Kui-hang laughed at the proposal to improve the ERC20 agreement in Ethereum. While many other blockchains were busy developing R & D, Cobra was still busy playing political games. Changing PoW would make bitcoin’s market share in the virtual currency world fall below 10 %, Prospects worrying.

Fourth, in-depth artificial intelligence industry chain

In fact, the boundaries of the bit mainland have far exceeded the virtual currency.

By the end of 2017, bit Continental “marched” to AI, and it is actively developing AI hardware and software products such as Deep Learning Accelerators and servers with the goal of enabling big data users to more quickly develop and deploy their deep learning with their cloud platform application.

It not only upstream of the industry chain – chip, but also the acquisition of downstream – application service providers (such as early childhood robot service provider carrot technology).

The bitter continent encountered the new continent of bitcoin, but also more than that. It connects the “classical” manufacturing industry, but also closely follow the forefront of financial technology – the blockchain, the future is difficult to limit.

Attachment: Bian continent is not completely chronicles (zero one financial comprehensive self network)

Established in 2013

In November, the company launched “AntminerSI”, a mining machine equipped with ASIC chips. According to Haitong Securities, this year saw an 432-fold increase in bitcoin power driven by ASIC chips.

Year 2014

April, ant S2 mine production and sales;
June, the first version of 28nm chip BM1382 successful development;
July, equipped with 28nm chip ant mines S3 production;
In September, the acquisition of the cloud mining platform was completed and renamed HASHNEST.COM;
In November, on the line ant pool (Antpool);
In December, ant miner S5 production

2015 year

In August, the fourth generation of Bitcoin chip BM1385 released;
November, ant miner S7 production

2016 year

June, release ant miner S9

2017 year

April, set up a mining company in Israel;
In early November, the release of artificial intelligence chip brand SOPHON (count abundance, take “count heaven and earth, Feng cognitive cognitive intelligence,” meaning, in Liu Cixin’s science fiction “three body”, count abundance is a locked earth science and technology Strong artificial intelligence) and the first tensor acceleration chip BM1680, the latter is the world’s first dedicated tensor computing chip after GoogleTPU. Bit mainland based on BM1680 accelerator card SC1 / SC1 +, intelligent video analysis server SS1 and other products are also mass production shipments, SS1 server-based face recognition system has begun to accept the customer’s order;
December 8, the acquisition of intelligent robot company Beijing radish technology, the latter has introduced a small number of children and other children early education robots. Radish mainly focused on children’s education scene, based on self-developed natural language processing technology, the selected enlightenment knowledge, early education courses, integrated into the voice and motion control based intelligent interaction.


Mines are being set up in Canada and Switzerland and regional headquarters in Singapore
March 2018, already has 1,500 employees (data from the bit mainland China microblogging)

Regard to “de-centralization,” you may know all the wrong things

After compiling this article, I understand a bit why Vitalik Buterin, a 94-year-old guy, was able to start Ethereum at the age of 20.

I can not say that Vitalik’s understanding is correct, but I really feel some of his superiority from this article. Vitalik behaves differently than many young people in his way of thinking. “Decentralization” is a concept of selective demise of ordinary people’s metropolis. People think they fully understand the meaning of these four words, but Vitalik chooses to grab the word in an attempt to give it a more standardized definition.

I am glad that Vitalik expressed his thoughts because, whatever the final point of view, the retrospective and discussion of this basic concept is the current scarcity in the context of the novel concept of various blockchains Content.

System design has always been a huge and fascinating thing. As small as a community, a company, a city, a country, the world we live in is surrounded by a variety of sophisticated systems. But the interior of these huge machines, sometimes imperfect, can even be very crude.

Believers in the blockchain believe that there is a loophole in the seigniorage of the functioning of the global economic system in fragile and unreliable humanity and therefore require an alternative centripetal approach. Vitalik, on the other hand, starts with the concept of “decentralization,” revealing how complicated a decent decentralized system is, how much resistance it needs to fight against, and how many obstacles to remove.

The world we live in is very complicated. More and more systems are being packaged as a black box. It is difficult for people outside to see how the gears inside the box work. With Vitalik’s discussion of the concept of decentralization, we can take a closer look. So, if you are not interested in the blockchain but have a lot of curiosity about the design of complex systems, read this article too.

This article in order to facilitate the reader to understand, at compile time some of the contents of a small amount of censorship and adjustment. If you want to read the original English article, please click “read the original.”

“Decentralization” is probably the highest frequency term mentioned in the blockchain, but the definition of the word is also unclear.

In fact, think about it quite incredible. The blockchain consumes a large amount of computationally expensive hashing power just to keep the network decentralized, but when people are arguing about whether a token or blockchain network is good or not, However, the term “change” is often used as a gunsmoke to simply concisely say “you are not decentralized.” You can easily end a debate.

So, what does “decenterization” mean?

Not many people can really make it clear. In fact, not many people are conscious or willing to go deep into the true meaning of the word.

When facing questions, most people are accustomed to citing the following three pictures to explain the so-called “deconcentration”:

But unfortunately, the above three pictures as a common explanation, the basic is invalid. It is not essential to our understanding of “decentralization.”

We need a more bottom-up approach, and we need a clearer standard of judgment to define “decentralization.” Because only by understanding the true meaning of the word, we can better understand the blockchain.

Judge “to decentralize” three rulers

In the software world, the so-called “decentralization” can actually be divided into three dimensions for discussion. These three dimensions are also the three rulers to judge whether a thing is “decentralized.”

It should be noted that these three rulers, at first glance may seem indispensable, but overall, they are independent of each other.

  1. Architecture layer: In the physical world, how many computers a system consists of? In the process of running this system, how many computers can withstand the collapse of the system is still unaffected?
  2. Politics: How many individuals or organizations have ultimate control over the computers that make up the system?
  3. Logic layer: From the system design of the interface and data structure, it looks more like a complete single device, or more like a cluster composed of numerous units? – This dimension may be abstract, not very well understood, and we can judge it in another simpler way: If we divide the system in two halves and include both producer and consumer in both parts, then the two parts Can I continue to run completely as a stand-alone unit?

The three rulers, a system design used to measure the architectural layer, used to measure the control of the political layer, one used to measure the logic layer belongs to form.

To sum it up, it might be clearer to use a chart to show:

Can see that there are some representative examples in the chart. It should be noted that the classification and emission of these examples are still relatively crude at the moment, and there may be many logically controversial issues. Nevertheless, we can still try to follow these examples once again, which helps us to understand “why these three criteria “Good thing:

  1. Traditional companies: Traditional companies are centrist at the political level (one CEO per company) and centripetal at the architecture level (one for each company) and are still centralized at the logical level You can not really split the company in half.
  2. Law: Modern law has two systems, one is the civil law, one is the common law. Continental law relies on a centralized legislative body, which is centralized at the architectural level. Compared with the common law, the common law is made up of many precedents formed by many judges who act as individuals. Although many courts now have a great deal of freedom to decide on their own, continental law has a small “decentralization” at the architectural level, but compared to common law, a system of individuals with many judges, The decentralization of the law is clearly higher. Of course, both are centralized at the logical level (law is law).
  3. Language: Language is decentralized at the logical level. The English spoken between Alice and Bob, and the English spoken between Charlie and David, need not be the same. At the same time, the absence of any kind of language requires a central infrastructure for support, and English grammar rules are not created by any single individual nor controlled by any organization (you may say that World English initially Invented by Ludwig Zamenhof, but from now on, the communicative function of English is more like a living language that constantly evolves itself. It grows out of itself.)
  4. BT: Like English, BitTorrent is also decentralized at the logical level. The same is true for content distribution networks (cdn), but they are all subject to the independent control of a single company.
  5. Blockchain: Blockchain is decentralized at the political level (no one or organization can control the blockchain) and decentralized at the architectural level (no single server can be attacked), but at At the logical level, the blockchain is central (each blockchain has its own universal consensus and the system behaves more like a separate computer).

Well, we succeeded in smoothing out whether various things are decentralized.

Once again, you should already have the first discovery:

When it comes to the benefits of a blockchain, many people often mention the benefits of a “central database” (or public ledger). But the blockchain is not decentralized, why is there a concept of “central database”, is this a contradiction?

With the standards provided by our three rulers, it is easy to understand that the so-called centralization of the “central database” is actually the centralization of the logic layer.

In most cases, the centralization of the logic layer represents a better choice. However, many people also claim that the logic layer needs to be decentralized as much as possible. For example, Juan Benet from IPFS thinks so. His reason is that the logic-centric decentralized systems tend to be more viable on the network partition. To explain in a human-speaking way, it is “de-centralization of the logic layer.” In a less connected world (such as a remote area), it will perform better.

Why do we need to “decentralize”?

We have mastered how to judge the “decentralized” approach. The next question is why it is important to be decentralized? What is the benefit of it?

Decentralization has three advantages:

  1. Fault Tolerance: It is unlikely that a decentralized system will cease to work because of a localized accidental failure because it relies on many independently working components for greater fault tolerance.
  2. Anti-attack: the cost of attack and destruction to the decentralized system is higher than the centralized system. In economic terms, this is the difference between looting a house and looting a village.
  3. Anti-collusion: To centralize the system participants, it is difficult to collude with each other. However, the leadership of traditional enterprises and the government tend to collude with each other for their own interests and in ways that harm the interests of customers, employees and the public.

We try to talk about the above three points, one by one in more detail.

Fault tolerance

The core of fault tolerance is actually “the ability to withstand errors and reduce the probability of system crashes.” The probability of a computer failure, and the probability of failure of five of the ten computers at the same time, which one is bigger? Obviously the former. This is actually a way to spread the risk. In real life, such fault tolerance has been widely used, such as jet engines, backup generators, and hospitals, military infrastructures, diversified financial portfolios, computer networks and many more.

However, decentralized, fault-tolerant capabilities, while effective and important, are sometimes far less useful than a simple mathematical model. The reason is that “common mode failure.” Four jet engines are less prone to failure than one jet engine, but what if all four jet engines were made in the same factory? Or that all four jet engines are made by the same unqualified employee? This is common mode failure.

So, the current blockchain, to withstand common-mode failure?

Really not necessarily.

If you do not believe it, take a look at these examples:

  • All nodes in a blockchain run the same client software, and the client software has a BUG.
  • All nodes in a blockchain run the same client software, and the client software development team is in collusion with corruption.
  • The research team that proposed to upgrade the blockchain network protocol is in collusion with corruption.
  • In a POW blockchain, 70% of miners are in the same country, and the government of the country decides to take over all the mines for national security.
  • Most of the mining hardware is produced by the same company, and the company is bribed or threatened, opening a back door to the mining hardware so that all the mining hardware can be shut down at will.
  • In a POS blockchain, 70% of the currency is held by a single exchange.

Obviously, in order to ensure decentralized fault-tolerance, these issues should be minimized to the extent possible.

How to minimize it?

Here are some things that might be helpful:

  • As much as possible to maintain multi-party competition;
  • The technology and knowledge needed to upgrade the agreement must be democratized so that more people can participate in researching, discussing and criticizing changes in apparently unhealthy agreements;
  • Core development and research staff should be employed by multiple companies or organizations (or many of them can be volunteers);
  • Mining algorithm should be designed to the lowest degree of centralization;
  • Ideally, we use the proof of place (POS) approach to get rid of the hardware-centric risk (of course, proof of equity may also bring new risks).

It is worth noting that we tend to focus on decentralized design at the architectural level as we look at more elementary fault tolerance, but if you start to consider fault tolerance in the longer term of a system’s evolution and evolution , Then decentralization at the political level is also important.


Now, let’s look at the anti-aggression.

In a purely economic model, it is not important to be decentralized. If you create an agreement that “a verifier will lose $ 50 million in the event of a 51% attack,” it does not matter whether the verifier is controlled by one company or 100 companies. The $ 50 million is the marginal cost of securing the economic security of this agreement, and $ 50 million is $ 50 million. In fact, game theory tells us that centralized systems can even maximize this notion of marginal cost of economic security (the current blockchain transaction selection model also reflects this view because miners / block makers Packaging deals into blocks is actually a very swift process of authoritarian rotation.)

But if it is in a richer economic model, especially if there is a potential for coercion in this economic model (or a targeted DOS attack on a node), decentralization will become very important. When a person’s life is threatened, $ 50 million is extra-physical to him and you can easily take away his money, but if the $ 50 million is spread out in a dozen, you have to threaten the extortion The number of people, instantly soared to 10 times, and this 10 times the workload, but also at the same time to complete, this is a nightmare for any one robber.

The interesting point, however, is that in most cases the world we live in is characterized by asymmetry in “attacks / defenses” and often more predators. For example, a $ 10 million building built at a cost of $ 100,000 can easily destroy it. But the leverage effect of such attacks / defenses is often sub-linear: $ 100,000 is needed to destroy a $ 10 million building, $ 30,000 to a $ 1 million building, and then further down, while a smaller building needs a higher ratio.

And so on, knowing these things, what’s the use for us to understand the blockchain?

Of course useful. This truth at least allows us to understand the three key points of the blockchain mechanism design:

  • First, the Proof of Entitlement (POS) is more secure than the Workload Proofing (POW) mechanism. POWs need to mine computers that are easy to detect, manage, or attack, while POS targets proof of entitlement, which is tokens, which are easier to hide relative to computer hardware;
  • Second, the more profitable the distribution of blockchain teams, including the geographically distributed ones,
  • Thirdly, when designing a consensus agreement, it is necessary to consider both the economic model and the fault-tolerant model.


Finally, we can finally discuss the most complex of the three above: anti-collusion.

The word collusion sounds a bit weird, because the word collusion itself is hard to define. To put it simply, we can conclude that “collusion” is “what we do not like about coordination.” Ideally, we want perfect coordination between everyone, but when some people are perfectly coordinated and others are uncoordinated, the situation becomes dangerous.

For example, antitrust law is an example. In order to prevent market participants from pooling together, colluding with each other, monopolizing, damaging the interests of market consumers and society, and thereby gaining excess profits, the antitrust law has deliberately set regulatory obstacles in the operation of the market.

Another example is the anti-active coordination rules between the U.S. presidential candidate and the PAC. The PPCA is equivalent to an independent support candidate community, mainly used to help candidates to raise unlimited funds for the election. In order to prevent it from colluding with candidates, the United States stipulates that there should be no direct link between the PAC and the elected political party, that is, an anti-active coordination rule. Of course, these rules are actually hard to implement in practice.

A further example is the rules set by chess games that prevent two players from playing frequently with each other in order to improve their respective scores.

As you can see, this “anti-collusion” attempt is ubiquitous in all kinds of complex systems in the real world.

In the blockchain agreement, the mathematical principles and economic principles behind the establishment of consensus security usually rely on this “anti-collusion” setting.

“Anti-collusion” is to avoid as much as possible coordination between nodes, in other words, it assumes that a block chain network is composed of many independent decision-making nodes.

Advocates of the blockchain believe blockchain is more secure because no individual in the blockchain network can arbitrarily change the rules of the protocol itself. However, if the developers of software and protocols serve the same company and belong to the same family and work in the same office building, it is very difficult to prevent this situation.

The most crucial point to truly guaranteeing security is to prevent the system from becoming a self-serving centralized monopoly. Therefore, the more fragmented a blockchain network, the harder it is for them to collude and be safe.

However, this actually reveals a fundamental contradiction.

Many communities, including Ethereum, exist because they have a strong community spirit and have the advantage of quick coordination in implementing, distributing and activating hard-fork. The question we need to think about is how to nurture and improve this good coordination while at the same time preventing those poor coordination relations from accidentally evolving into “collusion” with each other (for example, miners are trying to collude with each other , Repeated 51% of attacks, in order to implement fraud).

To solve this problem, may need to do the following three points:

  • Do not try to reduce the collusion, use the agreement to completely eliminate the collusion.
  • Try to find a balance that provides enough coordination to help the agreement develop better, but at the same time not enough to evolve into collusion and attack.
  • Try to distinguish between “good coordination” and “harmful coordination” and then find ways to make the former easier and harder for the latter.

The first of these guidelines was used in many places in the design of Etper’s Casper mechanism. However, the first point alone is not enough, because economic reliance alone can not solve the other two types of centralization disruptions;

The second method is difficult to design a clear, but it often happens by accident. For example, Bitcoin’s core developers generally speak English, while miners generally speak Chinese, which can be called almost “a happy accident” because it inadvertently creates a “two-chamber” governance mechanism. On the one hand It makes collusion between each other difficult, on the other hand reduces the risk of common-mode failures – English and Chinese communities, because of communication difficulties, to some extent, they are more likely to have their own independent Thinking, therefore, is unlikely to make the same mistake at the same time.

The third method represents a sociological challenge that may need to be accomplished:

  • Social interventions, that is, attempts to increase participants’ overall loyalty to the blockchain community in lieu of or to limit the direct loyalty that each market participant has to each other.
  • Promote different market participants to communicate in the same context, so that no matter the verifier, developer or miners, they are less likely to classify themselves as a class, thus reducing their Coordination against other classes, the possibility of protecting the interests of their own class.
  • When designing an agreement, try to avoid or reduce the one-to-one “special relationship” between the certifier and the miners, or to form a centralized relay network and other similar super-protocol mechanisms.
  • The basic nature of the agreement should be, and what should not be done, or what can only be done in the most extreme circumstances, these agreements should be standardized in their own very clear and clear.

To prevent collusion, anti-collusion to the center, may be the most difficult to achieve the.

To really achieve it, some trade-offs and trade-offs are inevitable. Perhaps the best solution may be to rely heavily on a group that is most likely to guarantee decentralization: the user of the agreement.

to sum up

Well, if you read here, congratulations you’ve beat 99% of the other readers.

Let us review some of the main points of “decentralization”:

  • Three rulers to measure the degree of “decentralization”, three independent criteria: architecture, politics and logic;
  • Three “decentralized” benefits: fault tolerance, anti-aggression, anti-collusion;
  • Among them, the fault tolerance needs to solve the problems caused by common mode faults at present;
  • Offensive resistance is not important in the pure economic model, but it is very important in the richer economic model.
  • “Anti-collusion” is the most difficult to achieve in the three decentralized advantages, and it requires constant trade-offs and trade-offs.

It is noteworthy that the article’s view may not necessarily be correct, but at least it has helped you to re-examine the “decentralized” these four simple words.

No matter what the so-called coins and chains, their time differences and the real world are one or a year. After a series of new nouns and new concepts, the fundamental concepts that many people think are taken for granted are analyzed Discussion, we think there is still some value.

Any new words, should be able to apply the existing words, the most simple explanation. This article may not be good enough at compile time due to our own limited ability, but we are also content if you are inspired by it.

How major technology giants play Fun supply chain

Earlier this week, Bloomberg reported that in order to ensure that cobalt, an important mobile phone battery material, would not be in short supply due to a blowout in the electric car industry, Apple is discussing the possibility of direct procurement of cobalt materials from several mines.

Although the current multi-party talks are still confidential stage, but informed sources said that Apple is now given the program is to seek suppliers to buy thousands of tons of cobalt material, a period of 5 years or longer, and there have been three cobalt mine sources have identified The news.

From this we can see that although the core competitiveness of technology giants is still their own products and services. However, in the current global context of production, any mistakes in the supply chain will lead to their own market position will be affected. In this issue, the Samsung Galaxy Note 7, after another battery explosion may be the best embodiment.

In fact, by investing upstream suppliers for a steady supply of raw materials, parts and components, this is already a long way in the global technology industry. So, other than Apple’s attempt to secure cobalt supplies by contracting directly with miners, what other tech giants have done in the supply chain?


Google’s efforts in supply chain management are evident in recent years. Perhaps most striking is that it invested at least 1 trillion won (about $ 880 million) in LG Display last April to help boost its smartphone OLED screen production capacity .

Specifically, Google invested about $ 880 million in LG Display to expand capacity to reduce the huge capital cost LG Display faces. In exchange, LG Display will ensure a steady supply of flexible OLED screens to Google for use on the next generation of Pixel handsets.

The backdrop to this investment is Samsung Display Corp., which monopolizes almost all of the world’s production capacity in the organic area of ​​mobile phones (Samsung currently accounts for more than 95% of the global mobile device OLED market). Moreover, there is news that Apple has ordered 160 million of its organic screen, plus Samsung monitors also give their own Samsung mobile phones to provide an organic screen, so other handset manufacturers have been difficult to purchase from Samsung to the organic screen. So, like other vendors, Google is also beginning to look to another of the world’s largest organic screen maker LG.

In the meantime, Google, which has recently invested heavily in driverless technology, hopes to strengthen its supply chain management capabilities in this area.

For example, Google recently led Daniel Munoz, Apple’s global supply chain manager, to help the company manage its global supply chain for driverless car projects. Mullis, formerly a global supply chain manager for iPhone and later in the Apple Watch team, has been seen internally as the most suitable candidate for Tim Cook’s post-Apple global COO position.


Speaking of Amazon, we can not fail to mention the company’s efforts in recent years to skip directly to individuals and corporate customers in the middle of such issues as skipping logistics and warehousing.

In fact, the past few years, Amazon has been building a high profile logistics and distribution network. According to MWPVL International, a supply chain consultancy, Amazon basically built a shipping system for the past three years, with about 70 express mail locations in 21 U.S. states and 44% of U.S. citizens within 20 miles An Amazon Express point, compared with only 5% in 2010 when this ratio.

In 2012, Amazon acquired Kiva Systems, maker of robotics, for $ 775 million, significantly improving Amazon’s logistics system. It is reported that by 2015, Amazon has increased the number of robots to 10,000 for the major centers in North America. Kiva systems operate 2-4 times more efficiently than traditional logistics operations, robots run 30 miles an hour with 99.99% accuracy.

As early as December 2013, Amazon piloted the Prime Air unmanned courier service. Customer orders online, if the weight of 5 pounds or less, you can choose to delivery drones, courier delivered home within 30 minutes. The whole process of unmanned, unmanned aerial vehicles in the logistics center line automatically pick the end, direct flight to customers.

This year, Amazon also announced the launch of “Shipping with Amazon” in Los Angeles and Fedex, UPS’s own courier service. The service will be delivered directly to third-party parcels sold on the platform and will be cheaper than the current UPS and FedEx. Therefore, after the news was released, the shares of FedEx and UPS dropped 1.7% and 2.6% respectively on the same day.

Moreover, Amazon is also the first company to promote big data to the e-commerce logistics platform. For example, Amazon took the lead in opening up a whole new “driverless” smart supply chain system in some markets, including China. Based on the data of cloud technology, big data analysis, machine learning and intelligent system, the system automatically predicts, automatically purchases, replenishes and automatically positions warehouses, and automatically adjusts the precise stock delivery according to the customer’s needs so as to automate the massive stock of goods , Accurate management, the whole process is almost zero manual intervention.

It is worth mentioning that, although Amazon has more than one other body in the logistics network leader, but the company did not stop the pace of their own innovation. For example, there is news that Amazon is developing a smart doorbell, hope that through this solution so that couriers can put parcels directly indoors, so as to solve the problem of package loss.


Electric car giant Tesla is in talks with SQM, Chile’s largest lithium producer, on the supply of raw materials for lithium batteries. The Chilean side said Tesla may agree to set up a processing plant in the country to produce the high quality lithium needed for its batteries. If the supply contract and construction plan to succeed, then this will be Tesla first set foot in the field of lithium battery raw materials.

According to the current news, the negotiations between the two sides are still in their infancy and it is unclear what kind of cooperation will eventually be made. But Tesla’s idea is that the company invests in lithium-processing technology to extract lithium, a raw material for car batteries, from brine in Chile’s desert and may even bring a partner to make a negative battery in Chile.

Like the cobalt material mentioned above, the price of lithium material, an upstream resource for the EV industry, has tripled since 2015. In addition to Tesla, global automakers are beginning to lock in the supply of lithium raw materials to expand the production scale of their own electric vehicles.

For example, Toyota Tsusho, a Japanese toyota group that oversees investment and trading operations, recently agreed to pay 282 million Australian dollars for a 15% stake in Australian lithium miner Orocobre, which will be used to expand Orocobre’s carbonated The annual production capacity of lithium is expected to increase by 143% from 17,500 tons in 2017 to 42,500 tons.

In addition, Tesla’s existing range of models also have ultra-luxury supply chains worldwide. In its powertrain system, electric drive system, charging the three major systems, a total of 38 direct suppliers. Among them, there are five Japanese companies, all of which are in the lithium battery pack, covering lithium batteries, positive electrodes, negative electrodes, electrolytes and separators; 21 Chinese enterprises have become direct suppliers; two in Taiwan; two in the United States, including Tesla Itself; one in Mexico and two in the EU. In addition, there are 30 companies in Tesla indirect suppliers list.

Only, compared to the company’s engineering feat in products, Tesla’s supply chain sometimes chain out. Recently, workers were forced to hand-craft Model 3 parts by supply shortages and robot production failures, partly due to the complex global supply chain environment owned by the Model 3 models.

Talk to an analyst friend about high-precision maps

One day, while waiting for the high-speed rail station, I suddenly received some questions from a friend and I gave some replies. Recall today, think it is necessary to post it as a memo.

A (Analyst): At what stage will a high-precision map be massively popularized? What is its business model?

L (Lei): There may be some controversy in the autopilot architecture before, but the basic consensus now is that high-precision maps are an integral part of the perceptual layer and based on this consensus, its widespread popularity should be with L3 above the basic automatic synchronization of vehicles.

From the business model point of view, the first is certainly a service, but this service may include both the map data itself, but also the integration of data processing, which is unique to the self-driving service.

A: This is not understandable, because the map manufacturers need qualifications, coupled with the national security and other factors, the domestic manufacturers have the absolute advantage of absolute advantage. From the business model, or from the fee? Data or the use of car companies or Uber such companies?

L: From the policy point of view, the qualified manufacturers have certain advantages. On the whole, it may be more reasonable to say that they are relative advantages. From the product or technology point of view, there are some new teams at home and abroad trying to build high-precision maps. They are more daring (radical) than some of history’s concerns.

Of course, such a small team is unlikely to develop independently for a long time.

On the other hand, last year, Li Shufu, at the People’s Congress, once put forward a request to liberalize qualification restrictions. This shows that the OEMs are also aware of the importance of map resources.

Added: The importance is that the users of the traditional navigation electronic map are people, and the user of the autonomous driving map is the vehicle itself. This is the difference between icing on the cake and getting what you need. From the production method, the vehicle’s Camera, Lidar and other sensors are contributing to the production of map source data, each vehicle is both a consumer and a resource provider.

In short, it is still the process of vehicle manufacturers, suppliers, government game.

A: So, for map makers, in this state, in what position? From an investment point of view, which link is more chance?

L: Now in a period of change, the rival of the business is not only the original business planner, but also some new entrants, such as xxx …….

As for investment opportunities, on the one hand, the field itself is still very uncertain. On the other hand, there is no way for individuals to remain neutral in their reply to this question. So, really hard to answer.

Added: The map will be in a more important position, and thus the status of map business will also be improved

Forecast 2018 AI trend: quickly into the hospital, can create new songs

March 3, according to Forbes magazine reported that “The Wall Street Journal,” “Forbes” magazine and Fortune magazine and other publications called 2017 “AI Year.” There are good reasons for this: AI defeated professional gamers and poker players, broadened the depth of learning education through several online projects, and the record of speech recognition accuracy was broken several times. Research institutions such as Oxford and Massachusetts General Hospital were Invest in developing your own supercomputer

These are but a few of the milestones the AI has achieved in 2017. What happens next? We have collected forecasts from the world’s leading AI researchers and industry thought leaders:

1.AI will really integrate into medicine

“The year 2018 will be a real year for AI into the medical world, and we will move from algorithms to products and more integration and validation so that these solutions can be transformed from concepts into solutions that physicians can find practical and available by the end of 2018, I think about half of the leading healthcare systems will adopt some form of AI in their diagnostic teams.Although this will first emerge in diagnostic medicine, we see demographic health, hospital surgery and a wide range of Clinics will follow, and in 2018 we will begin to adopt a technology that will truly change the way service providers work and how patients experience healthcare on a global scale. ”

– Mark Michalski, Executive Director, Massachusetts General Hospital and Brigham and Women’s Clinical Data Science Center

2. Deep learning will revolutionize engineering simulation and design

“2018 will be the year in which deep learning revolutionizes engineering simulation and design. For the next three to five years, deep learning will speed product development from years to months or even weeks to create products New paradigm for rapid innovation in functionality, performance and cost. ”

– Marc Edgar, GE Information Scientist

3.AI will be considered as part of a “regular” clinical system

“In 2018 and in the coming years, AI will be introduced into our clinical system, which will no longer be called AI, but will be called a conventional system.People will ask themselves: ‘How can we survive without these systems?’ ‘”

– Luciano Prevedello, MD, PhD in Radiology and Neuroradiology, Wexler Medical Center, Ohio State University, Master of Public Health

4.AI will be considered the mainstream content creator

“Given the rapid pace of research, I expect AI to create new, personalized media, like making music to your liking. Imagine a future music service that not only plays existing songs that you may like, but also Keep creating new songs for you. ”

– Jan Kautz, Senior Director of NVIDIA Visual Computing and Machine Learning Research

5. Technology will continue to adapt to AI

“AI will affect the next 25% of technology spending, the key theme is how organizations and human resources to deal with changes in AI technology.”

– Nicola Morini Bianzino, General Manager, Artificial Intelligence Department, Accenture, and Head of Technology Development and Strategy

6. Biometrics will replace credit cards and driver’s licenses

“Thanks to the development of AI, the face will become the new credit card, driver’s license and bar code. Facial recognition has completely changed the security of biometric functions, we will see this technology and retail convergence trend, like Amazon and In the near future, people will no longer have to queue up in stores.

– Georges Nahon, CEO, Orange Silicon Valley and President, Orange Institute Global Research Associates

7. New deep learning technologies will provide transparency on how to process data

“Deep learning will significantly increase the quantitative content of radiology reports and concerns about deep learning as” black boxes “will be greatly diminished because new technologies will help us understand the ‘vision’ of deep learning.”

– Bradley J. Erickson, Associate Director, Department of Radiology Research, Mayo Clinic, Advisor, Department of Health Sciences and Radiology; Advisor, Biomedical Statistics and Information Section

8. Smartphones can use AI and deep neural networks

“A large number of applications on smartphones will run deep neural networks to better support AI functionality, and friendly robots will start to become more affordable and become new members of the home. They will begin to make up for visual, speech and voice The gap between so that users do not realize the difference between these modes of communication. ”

– Robinson Piramuthu, Chief Scientist, eBay Computer Vision

9.AI will be more fully integrated into daily life

“Robots will perform better in complex tasks, even though these tasks have no difficulty for humans, such as allowing robots to walk freely in rooms or objects, and they are better at handling boring, routine things. I also look forward to their progress on natural language processing (NLP), although we have already had some success now and we will see more and more products that contain some form of AI coming into our lives. People driving vehicles are now deployed on the road, so those things that are tested in the labs will become more commonplace and available and will touch more of our lives. ”

– Chris Nicholson, Chief Executive Officer and Co-Founder,

10.AI development will be more diverse

“We are starting to see more and more people from all backgrounds involved in the construction, development and production of AI Tools and infrastructure will continue to improve to make it easier for more people to bring their data and Algorithms into useful products or services.Products and applications will allow more interactive queries on the inner workings of the underlying models and help enhance trust and confidence in these systems, especially in mission-critical applications. In the medical field , We will see the convergence of different sources of information across multiple disciplines, rather than focusing on individual cases, although the scope of these targeted applications will continue to grow at a fanatical rate. ”

– George Shih, Founder,, Associate Professor and Associate Director, Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical School

11.AI will open up new areas of research in contemporary astrophysics

“AI will be able to detect an unexpected astrophysical event that emits gravitational waves, opening up entirely new areas in contemporary astrophysics.”

– Eliu Huerta, Astrophysicist, National Supercomputing Center, University of Illinois at Champaign, Gravity Team Leader

12.AI will be transferred from the research laboratory to the patient’s bedside

“AI has reached the climax of the ‘publicity curve’ in imaging and we will begin to see AI-powered tools moving from the research lab to the radiologist’s workstation and eventually to the bedside. Less attractive use cases (such as , Workflow tools, quality / safety, patient classification, etc.) will begin to grab the attention of developers, insurance companies, healthcare providers and others.Medical and Imaging One of the biggest challenges facing the AI ​​industry is whether regulators can keep up with the ongoing What happens is that the FDA will need to find efficient and streamlined ways to review and approve algorithms for screening, detecting and diagnosing diseases. ”

– Safwan Halabi, Medical Director, Department of Radiology, Lucerne Packard Children’s Hospital, Stanford Medical Center

13.AI personal assistant will become smarter

“Personal Assistant AI is getting smarter and smarter When our personal assistant knows more about our daily life, I can imagine: I do not have to worry about everyday dinners anymore. My AI assistant knows what I like to eat in my closet Someday, I might cook at home someday and make sure that when I get home from get off work, all the groceries I need have been left in front of the house, allowing me to prepare my long-awaited delicacy. ”

– Alejandro Troccoli, senior research scientist at NVIDIA

Amazon levied 6% sales tax on some states in the United States

According to CNBC’s Beijing time on March 3, has notified third-party sellers that sales tax will soon begin to be imposed on goods sold to Pennsylvania.

On the vendor-only sellers platform, Amazon said that from April 1, Amazon “will calculate, charge and transfer sales tax” for orders that are delivered to users in Pennsylvania. Amazon spokesman confirmed this policy.

Amazon’s new service is called Marketplace Tax. Pennsylvania is the second U.S. state to levy ecommerce sales tax following Washington, DC, where Amazon’s headquarters are located. Last year Pennsylvania lawmakers passed a law that requires Internet retailers to impose sales taxes to create a level playing field for physical stores.

As more retail deals move online, states seek to offset a drop in tax revenues and Amazon is being forced to accept the new legislation for online retailers in the states. Internet sales in the United States have never been taxed since 1992, unless the merchant has a physical store in the user’s state. In a report released late last year, the U.S. Government Accountability Office estimated that the U.S. state and local governments could have collected a maximum of $ 13 billion in taxes on e-commerce sales last year.

Under Pennsylvania’s new law, sales tax will be levied regardless of whether an e-commerce platform merchant has a physical store in the state. So if a small Atlanta clothing company sends a dress to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, it now charges 6% sales tax. So far, Amazon has taxed the sales of its merchandise, but will allow third-party merchants on the platform to handle the tax on the sales of merchandise they sell.

In addition to Washington and Pennsylvania, states such as Colorado and South Dakota have also passed legislation forcing Internet sales taxes to be imposed.

Amazon said on the seller platform page that merchants do not have to take any action or pay any fees for the company’s automatic tax collection service and are unable to opt out or restrict sales to specific states for tax reasons.

In the future, whether there are more states in the United States to follow suit levying Internet sales tax, may depend on the United States Supreme Court. Starting in April, the U.S. Supreme Court will begin hearing arguments from South Dakota officials, who believe the 1992 ruling is no longer valid given the changing economic conditions.

Microsoft introduced the blind for VR equipment

Foreign media recently exposed a new Microsoft study. The project combines VR with a set of haptic devices designed to allow visually impaired people to explore the VR world as they would in the real world.

This device is called CaneTroller, mainly consists of 5 parts:

The first is a Braing Mechanism hanging on my waist. I call it Brakes. Like a brake disc, this device controls the front-to-back slide of the bar to which it is attached.

The second part is a hand-held rod-shaped controller, called it the joystick (the laboratory is the use of ordinary alpenstock plus control system).

The third part is the slider. The slider connects the brakes and the joystick, and the user controls the brakes to determine where your joystick (stick) can extend.

The fourth part is Voice Coil. Software control circuit, and then make it vibrate through the magnetic field changes.

Finally, we are familiar with the Vive suite. The lever is tied to the Vive Tracker, with a Vive helmet on the user’s head and a Lighthouse base station in the corner of the ceiling.

With this VR device, the program can position the joystick in the virtual world and recognize the movement of the “stick.”

Let’s see how it works.

The user holds the joystick and points on the floor, similar to the blind pathfinder. The difference is that the control lever is too short to reach the floor at all.

The scene simulated in the program is not the same.

In order to facilitate the presentation, Microsoft deliberately made a MR video, the virtual and the real scene mix.

In the virtual world, a longer rod is simulated, the length of which is set according to the specific needs of the user. At the same time, some virtual objects are also arranged in the virtual world.

When this virtual blind stick touches a virtual floor or other object, the voice coil motor produces high-frequency vibrations that simulate a real collision. In the meantime, the brakes pass the “brake” to stop the stick from moving in the direction of the obstacle. Only feel from the touch, you will feel the grip of the hands really touched something.

Function is justified, however, in the real world, take the root stick trash can easily achieve the thing, why deliberately wear a VR glasses, but also specifically to develop a program to experience this virtual collision?

And blind people wearing VR glasses? What is the significance?

Back to this question: people silly more money?

Do not worry, after all, it’s called Microsoft, let’s see.

Through software control, the voice coil on the joystick accurately simulates the effect of a click or slide. Not only different materials of different terrain sounds, the pace of movement, strength and so can accurately simulate.

Meet an ordinary wall, no challenge.

Common blinds at the station, cane sliding friction and meal touch are simulated very well

At the same time, 3D headphones also provide accurate 3D space sound. This means that just as in the real world, visually impaired users can move forward normally through ordinary two-point touch.

Careful people will find that the root of the virtual stick is always stabbed into the floor. This is because the brake can only control the lever in the horizontal direction, in the vertical plane helpless.

After all, Microsoft, they first thought of using software to make up for the lack of hardware: When the dummy stick moved to where it should not be, the program sounded an alarm.

Listen to Microsoft finish these nonsense operation, the time to witness the miracle.

In order to verify the practicality of the product, the research team asked several people who were visually impaired to use the blind stick for testing. They first learned how to use the device. The goal of the formal test is to find and identify all the objects in the virtual scene with the aid of this device, just by listening and touching.

Among them, the indoor scene with trash cans, blankets, tables.

Outdoor scene is a traffic intersection. Users need to find a blind spot, find the traffic light column, to determine the safe place to cross the road.

Of the nine people who participated in the test, eight said the correct layout of the virtual scene in minutes.

The product is roughly the case, what are its applications? Black box that there are three main:

First, let those with visual impairment, through this device for safe exploration of environmental training. While training with solid carpets, bricks and trash cans is not a problem, it’s not easy to explore more scenarios.

The second is to let visually impaired people experience the blind world. This is not for fun, of course, but for those who serve or design for the blind to understand the actual needs of the blind.

Third, let the blind experience VR. At first, I only understood the device as a training product, but the comments from foreign netizens inspired me: Why can not blind people experience VR?

Robert Accardi, a YouTube user, said everyone underestimated the potential of such products. If you do not have a cane, just let the environment of various objects according to different textures and different distances make different voices, until the human brain to form a reflection or memory. When you put on a pair of glasses that convert ambient 3D information into 3D sound effects, it is equivalent to “seeing” the world with glasses.

There are users questioned, there is no image, it is also called VR?

“Virtual reality is nothing more than the use of software to simulate the real world, not necessarily through the visual sensor to simulate.” User Luca Conesa think so.

The blind also have to explore the world’s needs, and even more intense desire. With VR, they can explore a variety of simulated realistic scenes in safer conditions.

In addition, with the enhancement of haptics and other sensory techniques, there may be content suitable for people with sight or hearing impairment in the future. Who says this can not be just what they need?

Blackstone co-founder 2017 revenues nearly 800 million US dollars

In 2017, Wall Street bosses earn pours. Steve Schwarzman, co-founder of Blackstone Group, earned more than Wall Street.

According to the Blackstone Group’s annual report to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on March 1, Schwarzman, the co-founder of Blackstone Group, received $ 786.5 million in revenue in 2017, the highest annual revenue he ever made.

Of this total, 661 million U.S. dollars in dividends and 123 million U.S. dollars in shareholding interests are the main reasons for his high income. In addition, his annual salary of 350,000 US dollars, other income of 1,345,000 US dollars.

Blackstone Group is a world-renowned private equity and investment management company, and Schwarzman owns a 19% stake in the company.

According to Bloomberg, among other Wall Street chiefs, Leon Black of Apollo Global Management LLC received $ 191.13 million in revenue last year; David Rubenstein, co-founder of Carlyle Group LP, Bill Conway and Dan D’Aniello have collectively allocated 193 million U.S. dollars in annual revenue. Henry Kravis of KKR & Co. and George Roberts received a total of 343 million U.S. dollars in revenue.

Although Schwarzman’s annual revenue is above the revenue of most S & P 500-listed executives, the upstart revenue for the technology sector is equally staggering.

Since last year did not meet the internal performance targets, Snap (Snapchat’s parent company) listed last year will not have a dividend in 2017. However, according to the company’s latest annual report, company co-founder and CEO Evan Spiegel still earned as much as $ 637 million in revenue last year. Imran Khan, the company’s chief strategy officer, also has $ 100 million in revenue.

According to Business Insider, Spiegel’s high income comes primarily from one-time stock rewards and will receive a bonus as a reward for the successful listing of Snap Group. Spiegel’s annual compensation accounted for 77% of Snap’s total revenue last year.

The market is not convinced that Snap’s internal unrealized goals for 2017 are too vague. Employees were told there was no dividend in 2017, which could be in sharp contrast with Spiegel’s super-annual revenue, which is not conducive to motivating employees.

Snap last fiscal year revenue reached 286 million US dollars, an increase of 72%, higher than Wall Street’s expectations. But even so, Snap was in turmoil in 2017, including the plunge in share prices after the IPO, changes in the advertising business, and the departure of senior executives.

On the blockchain, this is the big three guys fighting for contention to the three core issues

Two days ago, a friend told me that I now see all kinds of “three o’clock” micro-channel group chat history do not want to click in again, one is bombarded by information for a few days, there have been emotional fatigue; two Is because the group’s point of view is greater than the real dry goods, said so much, or people in the fog.

The blockchain popular science out of countless articles, but no matter how blockchain let these big guys how crazy, onlookers said they could not understand. When I saw a blockchain practitioner on Monday, he saw me saying, “You certainly do not believe in the blockchain. The people you believe and the people you do not believe are completely different.”

In the short span of ten days, the controversy over the blockchain has taken place for several times. In the three o’clock group, it can be called “chat in the arena” and not in the group called “off-site chatting.” All people’s views are in collision, truth or fallacy, everything is still unknown.

Debate on the first off: Every day that blockchain, application scenarios where?

One of the most important reasons why the blockchain has been challenged by people is that there are no practical scenarios and ordinary people can not see the value that may exist. So in the eyes of these experts, blockchain application scenarios most likely to appear in where?

Qia Qun, the founder of Quantum Chain, said: At present, the evolution of the whole blockchain technology is still at an early stage, just as the Internet era was 20 years ago. At that time, we could not imagine that there would be applications such as Uber on the Internet. The development of technology gives us a richer diversity. The possibility is the future.

Now, cryptocurrencies are relative to the blockchain, similar to Email versus Internet. The future development of the blockchain will certainly not stop at cryptocurrencies. From a scene perspective, the biggest feature of blockchain technology is the Trustless Platform, guaranteed by a variety of technologies, reducing the cost of all business transactions.

The most famous bearer of the blockchain, Xue Manzi, is similar in concept to Shuai Man. He also believes that the current landing of all applications is still quite difficult. The reason is that there are still many problems in the chain, including bitcoin and Ethernet Square appeared on the transaction costs, transaction confirmation time, scalability and other issues. Now quantum chain, EOS and other public chains have tried to solve these problems, but it is a long-distance race.

What exactly can the blockchain do for that? In the early prediction, the following scenes are relatively easy to fall:

1, the game industry (virtual props and game channel changes);

2, the field of digital content (video, audio, text);

3, ID change;

4, the financial sector (everyone through the smart contract to provide insurance services);

5, organizational structure change, instead of the company system;

6, investment areas VC / PE;

7. Opportunities to serve digital assets (wallets, exchanges, derivatives and liquidity).

Jiang Guofei, vice president of Ant Financial said that from the proof of concept to the actual commercial use of blockchain may appear in the financial services and supply chain management, the time may be this year.

Zeng Ming, Dean of Lakeside University, gave several possible answers based on the technical characteristics of the blockchain:

1, the most important advantage of the blockchain, is transparent, can not be changed, distributed books. Some areas are areas that the Internet has never covered, such as acceptance bills.

2, another big advantage of blockchain, from the perspective of smart contract, it is in this level of point to point, it is possible to form more efficient mesh coordination. Such as crowdfunding.

3. In the field of innovation, the blockchain will definitely be closely integrated with the development of the Internet of Things, artificial intelligence and other fields, including cloud computing, edge computing and so on.

Debate second off: virtual currency worth?

Bitcoin prices skyrocketed and more air currency was introduced. ICO is considered more deceitful than marketing. All these views point to the question: Is virtual currency worthwhile?

Because of the quarrel with Zhu Xiaohu and the increased visibility of fast taxi founder Chen Weixing, said the encrypted currency will never cash, never cut leeks. However, he has strong confidence in these virtual currencies and also believes that “there will be no future money in non-cryptocurrencies.”

The reason is that the existing currency is the credit currency, and blockchain is used to create credit technology. It has created a lot of people’s consensus, we can create what everyone believes, and then through the trading liquidity, we define a price as a unit of measurement.

According to Chen Weixing, the traditional macroeconomics is based on the theory of a single currency. However, the multi-currency system in a blockchain environment does not always pay for each payment in a single currency. Therefore, excessive savings of bitcoin will not cause Relative Bitcoin deflation, because we can use eth, qtum thousands of thousands of means of payment. In this way, in future worlds, bitcoin is no longer a “single currency,” but a measure of various other values ​​that measures relative prices.

Xue Manzi’s idea and Chen Weixing completely different. He claims he is not a bitcoin believer and recommended Ruipo Coin three years ago because of Ruipo Coin’s ability to deal with the problems of cross-border deals such as cost, inconvenience and time-consuming.

Murphy’s founder Lily’s point of view is also different from Chen Weixing, and Xue Manzi similar. He said Bitcoin is a starting point for the “big era” of the blockchain and has an antique value, that is, asset value, not monetary value.

Two days ago, the value of bitcoin was strongly criticized by Microsoft founder Bill Gates. Gates said that the “anonymity” of electronic cryptocurrencies poses great social problems that may lead to a lot of capital flows that are difficult to legally track, supervise and exploit for offenders.

“This is a rare technique that causes death,” Bill Gates said.

Debate on the third pass: Blockchain will subvert BAT it?

The Internet has become known as the “classical Internet,” and it seems that the blockchain will be replaced immediately. Anxiety has changed the mentality of Internet practitioners, and now have to worry about BAT.

In a conversation, Cai Wensheng, the founder of Meituxiu Xiu Xiu, asked Zeng Ming: Is there any major move by BAT (in the area of ​​blockchain) at this moment because of policy reasons or is it time for the blockchain to land?

Zeng Ming responded: “The core is not to see the entry point, big business innovation mechanism and the market is different. Who found the actual application, who became a large company.”

There is no answer to this question as to who can become a big company. However, the key to determining the potential of the blockchain is whether to nurture big companies or even to subvert BAT. When answering Wang Feng’s question about Wang Feng’s interaction last night, Tsang also added a passage:

“To judge whether the blockchain is a disruptive technology or not, I personally think it is hard to make a more informed judgment at this stage or to take some time to observe.”

Xue Manzi once said that everybody investors are looking forward to casting a Ali, but this is really hard. But he has no doubt about the disruptiveness of the blockchain. He said the blockchain is a big deal that really turns the table and crouched all the mahjong tiles on the table. Everything is zero. Up to BAT down to the small business in the same starting line. Everyone has the opportunity to dry out a BAT, especially BAT can not play this now. This is a big chance!

The impact of the blockchain on BAT is essentially the impact on the Internet. Shuai’s advice is: after decades of development of the Internet, people’s eating and drinking, clothing, food, clothing and transportation and other fields, all Internet companies have made a very easy-to-use products, I personally feel blockchain in these basic areas of demand is not Too many opportunities. From this perspective, the blockchain is very difficult to impact on the BAT in a short period of time.

In addition, he also believes that, from a scenario point of view, at this stage have not seen the subversion of BAT core business opportunities, because BAT has solved some very basic human needs.

The three-o’clock group has been active for half a month, and blockchain believers have modeled more groups. Every classical Internet practitioner, as long as a little show of interest in the block chain, will soon be pulled into the professional and unprofessional groups, see all kinds of people understand and do not understand the group, brave real truths Fake news is in discussion.

All discussions can not avoid these three issues. For example, some people want to ask the ICO in the end is not lying, we must first discuss the value and significance of virtual currency, and then understand the possibility of success of the project, the last look at the prospects of the industry. Even the most insightful scholars can not guarantee the correct answer. At this time, the confrontation of views is particularly precious.

MIT Associate Professor: Why hospitals love robots more than factories

According to MIT Technology Review, robotic colleagues and AI helpers are approaching us, but Julie Shah is not worried about replacing robots with robots, but welcomes them enthusiastically.

Shah is an associate professor at MIT who is committed to making humans and machines a safe and efficient partner. The job took her to the factory floor and the busy hospital where she tried to figure out how automation can make humans more efficient. Shah recently interviewed about the scene we started working with robots:

Q: What do you think is the most common misconception about robots in the workplace?

Shah: People generally think that AI is a very common and powerful ability that can be used in all these different kinds of work. But today’s AI can not be used in such a way.

Currently, every AI system needs to be designed to perform a very specific task, which requires a lot of engineering work. Although the scope of their mandates is expanding, we do not yet have “universal artificial intelligence” and it will replace a great deal of human work. As AI’s capabilities continue to grow, it can accomplish many small tasks in different areas.

Q: In factories and hospitals such places, to achieve the potential of robots how much?

Shah: When you talk about robots getting into more service environments, such as hospitals and office buildings, you find that they have fewer structured environments. Robots need to understand the environment, including personal preferences, when the busiest. It is cumbersome to code all of this.

We are always devoted to developing technology to observe the way professionals work. We observe how nurses make decisions, such as which room the patient is assigned to. Through the observation of human professionals, robots can be trained in learning.

Q: Have you noticed that in different industries, which industries are more susceptible to automation?

Shah: The area of ​​health care does not resist robots. People in manufacturing often feel more skeptical about robotic substitution. Proving that robots will improve human capabilities rather than replace humans may pose daunting challenges.

In the hospital, we studied nurses who served as management roles. They controlled most of the work scheduled in the operating room, such as which wards the patients were assigned and which nurses were assigned to take care of.

Compared with air traffic controllers, the work of these people is much more difficult from a mathematical point of view, but they do not have the same decision-making tools to help them. Nurses have a unique sense of value in their work. They know their work is hard and they feel there is room for improvement, even though they are already very familiar with the work.

Q: Do you think the dialogue between AI and work needs to change?

Shah: I think there’s one thing sometimes lacking in discussion, that is, AI is not a technology beyond our control. We are the designers of AI and how we structure their ability to work with AI.


With AI technology, scientists want to restore the perpetrator’s face from the victim’s brain

Scientists have been able to truly read human thinking with advanced computerized scanning technology and capture face images from the testers’ minds. If this technology is further refined, the police’s electronic facial recognition technology and even video recording of closed-circuit television will all be history as the police are able to get the true appearance of criminals directly from the victim’s brain.

This amazing technology has also brought new hope to people with disabilities who have speech problems and terrorists can not hide their massacre plans in the presence of law enforcement officials. Developed by neuroscientists at the University of Toronto in Canada, the new technology uses EEG monitoring equipment to gather people’s brain activity and reproduce the images they perceive.

Principal Investigator Dan Nemrodov said: “When we see something, our minds produce a mental state of mind, which is essentially a psychological impression that we can get through the brain with the help of electroencephalographic equipment What’s really exciting is that we are not reproducing the shapes, but the true look of a person and the many detailed visual features. ”

“We were able to recreate a person’s visual experience based on people’s brain activity, which brought us many possibilities,” said the researcher, “The technology unveils the content of our brain’s mind and gives us a Ways to explore and share what we perceive, remember, and imagine. “It also provides a way for people who can not communicate in languages.”

This technology not only reproduces a person’s perception from a neural basis, but also reproduces the content of their experiences and memories. The technique can also be applied to forensic applications by law enforcement authorities, and judicial officers can gather suspects’ information through witnesses instead of relying on verbal descriptions to obtain sketches.

During the study, researchers showed face images to testers connected to EEG devices. The testers ‘brain activity was recorded by the device, and the researchers then reproduced the digital image of the testers’ perceptions using a technique that was based on a machine learning algorithm.

Researchers have previously conducted similar tests with expensive MRI equipment, but EEG devices are cheaper, more portable and more practical. Researchers are now extending this technique to explore the possibility of getting more details from testers’ memories. The research funding comes from a new researcher’s prize at the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and Conant.

Amazon Alexa development simultaneous translation

The level of machine translation is getting higher and higher, after a few companies launched real-time machine translation (or simultaneous translation), but the use of poor experience. According to foreign media latest news, Amazon team is developing the simultaneous translation function of the voice assistant Alexa. In addition to the language, Alexa will also make a strong cross-cultural translation, which can help users to integrate into the customs and cultures of other countries.

A large number of agencies before the assessment, the voice of the four major companies in the world aides, Google Assistant and Amazon Alexa the highest IQ, not only easier to understand the natural language input, but also to answer the higher accuracy. In contrast, Microsoft’s Cortana and Apple Siri are far behind rivals.

Currently Alexa has access to a large number of third-party hardware and software equipment, more powerful. However, according to Yahoo Finance Channel quoted informed sources reported that the Amazon Alexa team is developing simultaneous translation function.

Alexa’s simultaneous translation is ready to go beyond the current level of competitors, that is, not just the translation of words and phrases, but into the level of cultural translation.

It is reported that the first languages ​​covered by Alexa simultaneous translation function include English, Spanish, German, French, and Italian.

At present, the Amazon officials did not comment on the news, has not yet confirmed the development of simultaneous translation.

In cross-cultural translation, such as an English-speaking American traveling to Tokyo, Japan, Alexa can become a translator next to him and help the Japanese dialogue. Alexa will also understand Japan’s customs and culture.

It has been reported that users will be able to ask Alexa a similar question, “Alexa, what should I say to the bride’s father at a Japanese wedding?” Or “What should I say to the wedding ceremonial?”

In another cultural scenario, if a traveler enters India for the first time, he can ask Alexa, “Alexa, I just went to a restaurant in New Delhi. Who should I speak to and say to a table?

A source told Yahoo Finance that cross-cultural translation and custom introduction will be a highlight of Amazon simultaneous translation.

According to reports, the future of Amazona Alexa can not only translate a set of conversations, and even able to translate complex conversations between people.

In the field of simultaneous translation, there are already many companies in the research and development, Amazon is already a late company.

Microsoft has previously introduced simultaneous interpretation using Skype, an Internet phone tool, but VoIP is a niche application. It is unclear how Microsoft has been marginalized in the field of smartphone chat tools and the technical level of Skype simultaneous translation.

Last October, Google also introduced Pixel Buds, a wireless headset accessory tool for smartphones, which is said to have simultaneous translation capabilities, but media reports later said the actual translation experience was not ideal.

In addition to simultaneous translation, a large number of companies have already launched machine text translation services. The most common is the user to enter a large text, mobile phone software, the website can automatically translate into other text.

However, whether it is machine translation or simultaneous translation, the current level of technology and experience are not satisfactory, has not yet reached the stage of large-scale popularity. Some machine translation actually made a joke, some businesses will translate the results directly to the shop front, the results proved to be completely wrong translation.

In the voice assistant simultaneous interpretation field, Amazon Alexa can come from behind, catch up with Microsoft and Google, will be worth attention.

Silicon Valley high traffic jam, science and technology can really create a beautiful new city do

According to foreign media reports, the success of entrepreneurs in Silicon Valley and not just stop at the specific business, they also want to create an ideal smart city. Can this utopian vision come true?

San Francisco Bay Area seems to be a science and technology venture of the Holy Land. There are optimism, innovative thinking and enormous wealth here, but this is not a utopian reality.

High local housing prices have overwhelmed teachers and chefs, leaving many people homeless. The problem of income imbalance here is the most prominent in the United States. Transport and logistics are also a mess. Local governments have been in trouble.

Obviously, the situation in the area has not yet improved.

“It should be much better here,” Ben Huh said, moving to San Francisco in 2016 after running the Cheezburger blog in Seattle. “There is so much wealth and so many opportunities.”

In the Bay Area, the vast gap between reality and ideology has led many inventors and engineers to become infatuated with the idea that cities can be built by people who develop physical circuits and social networks. A brand new place to start from scratch to design, break all imprisonment, liberated from the riddled existing policies.

Huhh led a project started by Y Combinator, a startup accelerator, to explore the creation of new cities. As soon as the news was released, hundreds of people came to apply for what appeared to be the “ultimate all-encompassing startup.” Last October, Sidewalk Labs, Alphabet’s Smart City Development Group, announced that it will collaborate with Toronto government agencies to rebuild an “internet city.” ”

For others in the tech arena, they generally relish the smart city of Arizona, the Bitcoin Development Zone in Nevada, or a special economic zone in Honduras, dreaming of a new, desirable city. They dream of owning autonomous vehicles, opening up new real estate ownership, building houses in 3D printing and skyscrapers in a matter of days.

Although some city planners disdain this. But in fact the United States cities are based on the arrogance of some people, such as cement blocks on the streets of Manhattan, or stand in the Bay of Golden Gate Bridge.

“Whose brain hole was once so big? Now the question is, where are these people now?” Paul Romer, former chief economist at the World Bank, said his thoughts on the new “feature city” have affected Some people in the technology industry. “Technicians, as they are used to doing, are thinking farther than any government now, so they should be trusted.”

Their interests are inherently logical. The entire technology industry is always trying to produce better things, such as cheaper phones, smaller computers and faster chips. But cities like San Francisco do not seem to have become more efficient versions. Ed Glaeser, an economist, once pointed out in his book The Victory of the City that the city is our greatest invention. If you simply understand this assertion literally, then the tech industry should think Ability to reshape the city.

When Elon Musk has launched rockets into space and is trying to create a “superhigh-speed rail” for the city, dreamers say this is not the case.

JD Ross, co-founder of the 27-year-old household goods company, said: “There are a lot of people who have come to terms with the idea.” So what should I do next? The billion-dollar company is bigger? “Rose’s company has valued more than $ 1 billion,” we have a home screen in the phone, and we have a home button in every application, but it really boils down to people This is more important.

For planners and architects, all of this sounds too naive to mistakenly identify policy issues as engineering problems.

The construction plan for an ideal city is seldom successful. Planners and architects often say that what we really need is to repair an existing city, not to find a new city.

It is hard to say how these tech entrepreneurs view the world in such a way that it is almost illegible to those who specialize in urban issues.

Ideal City: Lack of rules

After leaving from Cheezburger in 2015, Huch went abroad for a vacation to Croatia’s port city of Dubrovnik. There, in the old town, he saw many Americans come out of shabby buildings and narrow streets and take cruises to the sea.

Like many urban planning students who have returned from overseas, Huhh has the same insight that although Americans like these environments, we can not build such cities locally. Instead, we encourage cities to expand, to increase their density and to plan their cities around cars. We also export this paradigm to all parts of the world.

The ideal city described by Huh and other tech people is not much different from what many urbanists need. They are eager to overcome problems such as neo-pacialism and private cars. They want to build pedestrian-friendly neighborhoods and are surrounded by super-high-speed trains that are faster than any existing train. They are concerned about affordable housing, for which lack of affordable housing seems not to change the policy issue, but rather to solve the problem with building technology.

“We have not influenced the basics of infrastructure and society yet,” said Huhh. “We’ll do better,” he pointed to his laptop and added: “We’ve made new things better. We have not done the old things better. ”

In thinking of how to do this, technicians are respected “first principles,” a claim that inherent and traditional expertise may hinder breakthrough ideas.

This method has worked before. If Travis Kalanick starts off with a study of taxi rules around the world, Uber simply does not exist. In contrast, services provided by Uber violate these rules and change the way people travel millions.

For urban construction, this means leaving aside other concepts, the original building code, and the conservative forces that prevent change. The ideal city is in an environment not only about the gaps in the building, but also the rules of the virgin land.

Huhh and others are proud to say that what they hear is ridiculous: How much does it cost to build a city? Why can not you build a skyscraper in a few days? Can you compress a city’s rules to a hundred pages?

This, in turn, led to radically different conclusions.

“People currently live in cities that are equivalent to flip phones,” said Jonathan Swanson, co-founder of Thumbtack. His company links consumers with professionals like house painters and wedding ceremonies. He said if someone can build a better San Francisco, say iPhone X in the city. So after two hours, people in other cities will ask for an upgrade to where they are. A new city may benefit millions of others who are not living there.

“When there is competition, it benefits users like iOS and Android, or Lyft and Uber,” Swanson said. Without competition, we’ll get cities like Comcast or the U.S. Vehicle Administration D.M.V.

Conflict between people and ideas is the key

However, it goes beyond the history of urban development and the history of the advancement of science and technology. In the 1960s, as Hubert Humphrey put it, people also believed that “the technology that will bring people to the moon will also be the technology we need to transform the city.”

At that time, NASA and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development collaborated on the development of a “city control system.” The lunar landing simulator was used to study the urban environment. Many companies promise to build space-age cities from scratch.

“It’s easy to get a sense of deja vu,” Nicholas de Monchaux, a designer and Berkeley professor, described in his book Spacesuit.

He said that the plan of technological transformation of the city failed, and now will not succeed. Indeed, technology can help reduce traffic jams or allow you to get home faster. “But for a city, however, it does not have an improved foundation,” he said. The driving force behind a city’s improvement stems from inefficiencies that come from unpredictable people and conflict of ideas.

It is unclear how to improve the city. Technical experts describe the lofty aspirations of “human prosperity” or “quality of life.” But lofty goals can clash within the city. You can afford to transform your city into a home for all, but it may mean that the city will be more crowded. You can transform the city into a home that bathes the sun, but that may mean that the city is too open to support different restaurants and public transport.

These trade-offs require policy choices. Therefore, those who want to avoid the policy inevitably will not be able to bypass it.

In technologically serious urban scholars, Alphabet’s Sidewalk Labs seem most likely to create a real city. The company, which conducted a yearlong study of New York City under the leadership of former deputy mayor Dan Doctoroff, concluded that it needed a space that was relatively empty to truly innovate.

Since there are already too many people or buildings, the energy grid can not be installed or the private car can not be tested at the time of banning the private car. However, Dooctov points out that an isolated city simply can not function because people do not want to move there.

“The Smart City Campaign as a whole has been less than satisfactory, partly because it is very hard to develop in a traditional urban setting,” said Dotokov. “On the other hand, if you do not respect the traditional Urbanism, I do not think it is reproducible, which may be too naive. ”

Toronto experiment

Things that Sidewalk Labs is always looking for in Toronto, Canada. There are about 800 acres of undeveloped waterfront area. As a metropolitan neighborhood, you can re-imagine the deployment of autonomous vehicles in which to prefabricate related buildings and pipelines for delivery robots and waste disposal. The project is in the parliamentary discussions in the pilot phase. Ultimately, Sidewalk Labs could become a joint master planner for the entire city and a government organization that manages the city.

Huhh did not say what form the Y Combinator project would eventually take. The organization announced no land or government partners. However, Hooke described this effort as a “crazy ongoing project,” mainly training on affordable housing issues, which Y Combinator believes is closely linked to everything else.

The greatest impact of technology may not come from the “super-high speed rail” or the new Smart City Super Loop or new North American cities like Toronto, Canada. It may affect the developing world, and some local economists have been inspired by the concept of a future city, hoping that science and technology will do everything.

Mr Grease posed the question of what seemed more provocative but seemed to play a bigger role than how to build a better San Francisco. He said: “The first issue is how can we build more plastic housing for the slums in a wholesome and truly cheap way?”

Rose, 27-year-old business is still thinking about the right goal.

“I’d like to figure it out as soon as I get 100 million dollars.” He sits in the corner of a famous coffee shop in San Francisco. There are a lot of construction cranes out the window, and the city is rebuilding slower than he wants.

He said, “This is more than buying Bugatti.”

The SEC has issued a large number of summonses to allegedly violating ICO Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies fell

The U.S. securities regulators’ control of cryptocurrencies has not dissipated, but intensified – The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) tightened its fraud for the first time in the issue of tokens (ICO), according to The Wall Street Journal, Has issued a large number of summons to industry players suspected of violating securities laws. This is because the SEC has been worrying for months, and some ICOs are raising funds for those non-existent businesses.

The Wall Street Journal reported that the SEC issued a subpoena to get information from technology companies and consultants who are involved in the cryptocurrency market.

Most ICOs are securities

CoinDesk data show that the ICO market has become increasingly hot in the past year. The SEC is therefore concerned that in many cases, some investors with smaller financial resources have not adequately studied the risks associated with the ICO. In addition, the Wall Street Journal quoted sources as saying that the SEC is investigating the structure of the ICO, in part because the ICO does not need to follow as many provisions as the IPO.

After the news came out, major cryptocurrencies, including bitcoin, etheric and ripple, crashed.

SEC spokesman Judith Burns did not immediately respond to a call seeking comment. However, the Daily Economic News reporter noticed that SEC chairman Jay Clayton has been critical of the ICO’s fund-raising practices. Clayton has also said on many occasions that the vast majority of ICOs should register with the SEC because these cryptocurrencies are traded on the secondary market just like any other SEC-regulated securities, but the ICO has been slow to accept SEC regulation. In an interview in January of this year, Clayton promised that “if the ICO company does not change the way it operates,” more will be sanctioned.

In addition, in early February, when Clayton made a speech in the U.S. Senate, most of the ICOs are securities. Clayton also said at the time that he was concerned about the regulation of the types of crypto-assets under the SEC’s current currency trading framework.

In a speech to the Senate, Clayton said “Investors are entitled to the protection of state and federal securities laws when they participate in securities transactions, and this is true of investors involved in the ICO. In addition, ICO financing Both the parties and the market participants must abide by these laws and we are willing to discuss with Congress and other countries whether there is a need to strengthen the federal government regulation of cryptocurrency trading platform.But we also support the regulatory and policy aspects of the promotion for the ICO And greater transparency in the cryptocurrency space. ”

“Many ICOs are unlawful and the ICO companies do not comply with the securities law, and some say this is because the securities laws do not explicitly state the ICO and we do not think so.” Clayton The Senate added:

How to manage is not clear

The Daily Economic News reporter noted that ICO has been a controversial fund-raising model ever since its inception, and that securities regulators have sounded countless warnings to ICOs. The SEC warned before that it was not enough for a tokens issuer to classify cryptocurrencies as “utility, utility” categories, enough to circumvent the federal securities laws.

But beyond the SEC, it is unclear how ICO and cryptocurrency will be effectively regulated. For the time being, the cryptocurrency trading platform is not under the jurisdiction of federal agencies such as the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC). In contrast, these ICO-financed companies are licensed and regulated at the state level. In addition, although the SEC is tightening its regulation of ICOs, ICO’s financing model is not in the regulatory framework for stock IPOs.

Ordinarily, in the ICO process, a company sells digital currencies that can eventually be redeemed for goods and services. ICO allows companies to get millions of dollars from investors. For example, a telecom application operator called Telegram is trying to raise $ 1.2 billion by issuing tokens.

The SEC has already made a number of cases involving the ICO, including allegations against a Texas-based company in January of this year, claiming that former Boxing Champion Evander Holyfield (World Class Champion ) Successfully raised 600 million U.S. dollars as a celebrity spokesperson. The SEC said the company, known as AriseBank, allegedly raised funds illegally from investors without filing with regulators.

The Daily Economic News reporter also notices that in the past year, the rise of cryptocurrencies and ICOs has caused soaring prices of major digital currencies such as Bitcoin and Ether. According to Autonomous NEXT, a financial technology analysis provider, in January 2018 companies in the industry raised a total of $ 1.5 billion through ICOs. In 2017, this figure is more than 6.5 billion U.S. dollars.

Dell or concentrate on the reverse acquisition of VMware transactions, no longer focus on the IPO

According to foreign reports, sources said on Thursday that Michael Dell and his advisors are currently focusing their energy on the transaction that led Dell back into the securities market through a reverse acquisition of VMware, a publicly traded subsidiary. It is reported that, Dell has no longer attached importance to the choice of initial public offering (IPO), because this method can not simplify the company’s capital structure.

It is reported that Dell’s final decision or the reverse acquisition of VMware’s transaction will take at least one more month to complete. Reverse acquisition of VMware’s transaction is equivalent to capital replacement, Dell does not need to pay cash will be able to complete. By merging the assets of both companies into a new publicly traded entity, Dell is also able to access VMware’s entire cash flow. Reverse acquisition, also known as “backdoor listing” or “reverse takeover”, generally refers to the non-listed companies to buy shares of listed companies to obtain the listing status, and then inject their own business and assets, to achieve the purpose of indirect listing.

Michael – Dell is currently considering re-entering the securities market, partly due to the company’s server business is growing, and the PC business remained stable. Dell is currently the world’s largest private technology company. After borrowing $ 67 billion in EMC’s acquisition of EMC in 2015, Dell, which is heavily indebted, seeks to gain new growth through deals, though it has gradually reduced its debt by about $ 10 billion way. The acquisition of EMC’s deal did not allow Dell to achieve its planned cost cutting and performance targets. At the same time, rising parts prices and data storage market conditions eroded Dell’s profit margins. The company is facing a lot of pressure on improving its profitability.

The launch of the tax reform program in the United States at the end of last year, coupled with the increased risk of rising interest rates, put more pressure on raising more cash and could exacerbate Dell’s debt burden. The reverse acquisition of VMware, a business software company, will give Dell access to the company’s $ 11.6 billion in cash to help it trim its current debt of $ 52.5 billion.

In a statement last month, Dell and VMware said the company is evaluating potential “business opportunities,” including initial public offerings or reverse mergers. Dell also said that the company has not yet made any decision, the future may terminate the transaction, continue to operate independently under the current framework.

The merger between Dell and VMware enabled the two companies to be managed by the same management team to help them coordinate their strategy. Dell’s hardware and VMware’s software may be packaged into a set of products for sale. Dell acquired 82% of VMware’s stake in EMC by acquiring EMC. Under the terms of a lockdown signed by Dell, the company was unable to acquire the remaining shares of VMware by the end of September. Industry insiders, in this case, Dell must reverse merger with VMware, and the deal on Dell and Silver Lake is the most favorable. To reflect the fairness, the source said, the latter board considered increasing the so-called “minority majority” voting session at Dell’s reverse merger with VMware.

With the reverse acquisition of VMware, Dell will become a public company. The move could also provide a channel for private equity firm Silver Lake to finally withdraw from its investment in Dell. Silver Lake previously helped Michael Dell to complete a $ 24.9 billion deal for Dell in 2013. Currently, Silver Lake holds approximately 18% of Dell’s stake.

Under the new U.S. tax law, Dell can only pay off 30% of its $ 52.5 billion debt when it pays taxes. Dell paid as much as $ 2 billion in interest last year, but could be deducted from the amount of tax due. As of now, Dell did not comment on this.

Analyst: Apple device life cycle over four years, new products are not sold well

In the past two years, sales of Apple mobile phones have dropped continuously, Apple and Cook into a development crisis. One of the reasons, is believed to be an extension of the upgrade cycle of Apple’s mobile phone, affecting the sales of mobile phones.

According to the latest news from foreign media, one analyst’s recent analysis pointed out that the average life expectancy of Apple devices is actually four years, which is almost twice that of the generally believed upgrade period of the Apple mobile phone.

In the past, many agencies reported that the cycle of U.S. consumer replacements for Apple phones has been extended to two years, and consumers have been able to get new Apple phones for just $ 199 with the carrier subsidy system in the past. However, the cancellation of operating subsidies and the decline of innovation in Apple’s mobile phones have led to an extension of the upgrade cycle.

According to AppleInsider, a U.S. technology news website, Horace Dediu, an analyst with Asymco, a market research firm, recently conducted a study on the useful life of Apple hardware products.

The analyst based on Apple’s quarterly unit sales, and Apple released an important data before: iOS’s active use of equipment has reached 1.3 billion units.

The analyst produced detailed charts and found that the lifespan of Apple hardware devices is actually 17 quarters, which is four years and three months.

This time than the generally considered Apple mobile phone upgrade cycle doubled. This also means that the useful life of existing products increases, from another aspect also affects the sales of Apple hardware products.

Just this week, a U.S. authoritative media report pointed out that the global smart phone market, including Apple and Samsung Electronics, has formed a huge refurbished machine segment. The old mobile phones returned by consumers in some countries flow again after being refurbished The market. According to the analysis, the global sales of smart phones 10%, in fact, refurbished mobile phones.

In the United States, major operators and companies such as Apple operate a similar mobile leasing business, users pay a fixed monthly fee, the next year when Apple introduced a new phone, they can directly replace the use of the latest cell phone, the old cell phone was Returned, entered the second-hand renovation channels, continue to sell to developing countries market.

In 2016, Apple’s official website released information on the useful life of hardware products. Apple said that the useful life of smartphones, tablets and Apple watches is three years, and that of Apple laptops is four years.

But this is only a technical service life, Apple products rely on the excellent manufacturing quality, in reality, have a longer life expectancy.

At the end of last year, Apple suffered a rampage in the world hubbub of “speeding door” incident, many users found that the operating system after the phone suddenly slowed down after the operating system, Apple later confirmed that some of the older cell phone processor was decelerated, In order to reduce the impact on lithium batteries, Apple said such a move is to extend the service life of equipment.

At present, Apple’s three major hardware products are caught in the downturn embarrassing, the authority’s data show that Apple’s mobile phone sales peaked in 2015, and then declined for two consecutive years. In the fourth quarter of last year, while Apple’s mobile phone sales of three new machines at the same time, there was a surprising decline. In addition to an extended upgrade cycle, iPhone X’s pricing of up to $ 1,000 is considered an important factor in hurting sales.

In addition to mobile phones, Apple laptops and tablets are in the two sunset markets, the industry has already declined for many years, Apple as one of the manufacturers naturally can not be spared.

Want to mix well in the workplace, with “data power” is very important

In a MLB MLB season, the Oakland Athletic Team lost to the rich and powerful New York Yankees, which hit Billy Bean, general manager of the Oakland Athletic Baseball team. To make matters worse, three main force have been dug in the future, the future of the future is slim.

And, at a scouting session with the team, a group of old scouts are unidentified, taking into account even the most handsome or unlucky when choosing a player. At this point only Billy knows, the team must make changes.

By chance, Billy met Yale School of Economics Master Peter Blom (rich body), specializing in player data analysis experts, Billy very much agree with Peter’s set of mathematical modeling to find underrated players Method, by intuition and experience, Billy seems to have found the key to cracking Jinyuan baseball.

As a result, Billy hired Peter as his own assistant to study how to create the highest winning percentage of the team. They are gradually digging the team can afford affordable, underestimated players, through soft grinding and foam they will be led. Finally, the new season begins …

But the start of the new season did not go well, the team losing streak, the team coach has been looking to his face, the coach refused to use the Peter model selected by the players, the players even worse, still lose when Dressing room dancing. In life, the divorced Billy in the face of the daughter’s concern, can only laugh, pretend to be strong. Everything seems to be a mess.

The turnaround occurred after the team a series of player transactions, when the coach started using the method of Billy and Peter’s players selected, the team actually started winning. Although Billy still, as always, no courage to watch the players play at the scene, but the team actually won the Union record-breaking 20 game streak … …

The story, from Michael Lewis’ bestseller film, “Penalties,” reveals one of the simplest truths whether you want to make more productive internal decisions or want to offer your customers more valuable products, Analysis is essential, it will be the data summary, analysis, and find out the meaning and internal relations.

Mentioned in the best-selling “vision” of a very important workplace capabilities: ability to migrate. Such as communication skills, foreign language ability and so on. This ability can help you quickly adapt to the role of the workplace, and can make you qualified for more advanced positions. And Davenport, in her new book, “Becoming a Data Analyst,” tells you another crucial migratable-data power.


Why are people so powerful?

Speaking of Nightingale, what would you think of? She is synonymous with the spirit of nurses, pioneers of nursing, was later hailed as “lantern.” In honor of her, the descendants set up the International Nurses Day on May 12 every year.

She made such extraordinary achievements, not only her strong, kind and kind, but also her super data.

When the war in Crimea was under way in October 1854, mortalities in the field hospital were as high as 43% due to poor facilities and poor sanitation. Nightingale made it clear at that time that statistics were necessary to solve the problem. So she started collecting data and detailing daily hospital rooms, gunshot wounds, sickness patients, treatment and deaths, and then categorized them.

But finding the problems is far from enough. Florence Nightingale’s most urgent task is to let the relevant departments pay attention to the seriousness of such things, and then take the necessary measures.

Nightingale was interested in numbers and tabulation information since her childhood. Although she recognizes the importance of digital evidence, she also understands that not everyone is interested in digital charts, and most people avoid them and miss some of the evidence. She wanted the reader to see her own statistics, so she used a graphic that showed everyone the number of unnecessary deaths caused by unhygienic conditions and the need for reform. At that time, this method of presenting data was quite new.

Nightingale uses the pie chart creatively and shows it in a wedged cut. In addition, Nightingale printed the icons in several colors, clearly showing the monthly changes in the causes of death. Use numbers and icons as evidence, both clearly and clearly.

Nightingale effectively and clearly reveals to all in this concise and clear manner what happened during the war in Crimea: the wounded soldier who was taken to the hospital was less well-healed and died more. Eventually, the relevant agencies adopted Florence Nightingale’s proposal and the hospital mortality rate dropped drastically. In June 1856, after the war in Crimea, she returned to England, at which time she became famous and became a hero in her heart. Nightingale used her data to save the lives of millions of British soldiers.


Data strength, advanced workplace up to super weapons

First of all, what is the data power?

In “Becoming a Data Analyst,” Davenport summarized the power of data into three major competencies:

1) work experience bottlenecks? You should change mind

Some people have been in the workforce for two or three years now. They are highly skilled and have a network of contacts. However, they are hard-working and sophisticated in business and professional positions. Where are the problems? What you may lack is a more structured way of thinking.

Data force is first of all a structured thinking ability, its core is analytical thinking. Davenport divided this ability into three stages and six steps:

Ask the right questions, solve the problem in the right way, and ultimately communicate the results to the team and get the problem solved. The three phases, seemingly simple, but doing everything can make you an irreplaceable person.

Marketing has a famous “Warnemec theorem.” Known as the father of a department store, Warnemeck is even more famous because of that: I know half what I spend on advertising is useless, but the problem is that I do not know which half. For start-ups from zero to one, the traditional burn-money advertising line is obviously not appropriate.

Ultimately, the people who solve the problem are not veteran market experts, but programmers with a data-thinking mindset. They redefined the problem for growth. And put forward a set of “pull new – activation – active – retained” model. At each stage, marketing costs can be clearly quantified, pushing marketing to a new level.

Whether you encounter a bottleneck in your job or want to make significant progress in your job, you should use Davenport’s 3-stage, 6-step process to polish your thinking weapon.

2) speak less attention? You should change it

Data power is also an enhanced expression of ability, as Marquez told reporters in a Paris commentary: “If you say elephants fly in the sky, people will not believe you, but if you say that 425 elephants are in heaven Fly, people might believe you. “Of course, this is just an example, and the point is that the ability to tell stories with data becomes more and more important in the business. Nightingale was not the first to discover the link between health conditions and patient cure rates, and she is using innovative ways to draw the attention of the department concerned and to solve the problem. If you try to diss your boss, let him increase departmental funding. Or persuade customers, using your program, this ability is essential.


The Israeli company wants to implant chips in the human brain to help cure the disease

The thought of implanting the chip in the human brain is enough to hesitate to entertain the most fanatical science fiction fans.

According to Futurism, the mind control interface is still a completely new technology in its early stages of development and we are not yet fully prepared to fully integrate the human brain with the computer. But in the meantime, a company hopes to help patients with stroke and spinal cord injury by non-surgical implantation of electroencephalography (EEG) machines.

The revolutionary technology being developed by Neuralink and other brain-computer interface (BCI) companies pioneered by the American serial entrepreneur Elon Musk will likely help improve human intelligence, memory and communication in the future. Although the technology is promising in practice, in fact, the idea of ​​implanting the chip in the human brain is enough to hesitate to enrage the most fanatical science fiction fan.

Headquartered in Israel, brain technology startup BrainQ, is taking a less invasive approach that combines the human brain with technology. Instead of implants, BrainQ uses a non-surgical EEG machine that records the brain’s electronic activity. EEG has been used by other paralyzed patients and BrainQ hopes their technology will achieve similar goals and improve the lives of stroke and spinal cord injury patients.

However, the neuroscience company also faces considerable obstacles that need to be cleared before their technology is used in the medical field. First, the technology needs to successfully complete human clinical trials. It then needs FDA approval to be commercially available in the United States. Ultimately, the most difficult challenge for BrainQ will be to keep competing with other companies trying to create something similar to EEG-based technology.

While companies like NeuroLutions and NeuroPace will technically be BrainQ competitors, the latter seems to be a leader in the applications of patients with stroke and spinal cord injury. The company hopes the technology will be available in the U.S. market by 2020. After that, they will continue their efforts to separate BrainQ from other companies by developing a broader disease application.

Assaf Lifshitz, a BrainQ spokesman, said the company hopes to use the technology in the future to collect data, improve the symptoms of Alzheimer’s patients and help treat several childhood illnesses.

The timeline set by BrainQ may be reasonable as it relies on less invasive techniques (relative to brain implants) that may be much easier to obtain approval from the Food and Drug Administration than other BCI techniques . With the introduction of this technology, BrainQ hopes it will be able to gather more extensive and extensive data on the electronic activities of the human brain. In the future, these data may help to provide a more accurate assessment of the patient’s condition and thus help them achieve more effective treatment.

10 misunderstandings about iPhone

To use the phone for a long time, protection is very important. Many users will scratch the film the first time when buying a new iPhone, put on the protective cover, the purpose is to prevent thousands of dollars worth of mobile phone accidental damage. But do you know that in everyday use, even if it’s just a simple standby, charging will inadvertently damage the phone?

idropnews in recent days with the combination of Apple’s sale of “genius” and the recommendations of professionals summed up the 10 “misunderstanding the iPhone,” Here we may wish to look together.

Do not use the lock screen password

Although the current iPhone’s protection mechanism has been perfect, but according to Apple’s 2013 report shows that there are still some users are not accustomed to using a password to protect their equipment.

Although the Touch ID and Face ID can prevent the thieves from unlocking in most cases, the biometric authentication through the biometric authentication will eventually disappear, and the lock screen password will naturally become the protection of your mobile phone The last barrier of privacy. As for the “lock screen” password “effect”, even the FBI (FBI) are no match.

Allow all applications to use location services

Each time a newly installed application is opened, a similar prompt “Allow applications to get your targeting information” pops up, and in most cases, the user will select “Allow” for future use.

But in fact, do we really need to get the app ready for our location?

Perhaps long-term open positioning function to facilitate our readily view the map, search tools or taxi software, etc., but long-term positioning function will have some drawbacks.

The first is the long-term open positioning function, cell phone battery life will consume faster than the need to use open; followed by privacy issues, do you really need an application at any time know where you are?

idropnews advice is to add or remove location-based services for certain applications in your settings based on your usage needs.

“Only when the battery runs out is charged and the battery is good”

I wonder if you have not heard of a rumor Square – “cell phone batteries have to run out and then recharge, so as not to damage the battery”, in fact, cell phone charging is not the end of the world, charging and will not cause much harm to the battery.

Today, lithium battery manufacturing technology and charging technology is already quite mature, in addition to modern mobile phone battery IC can prevent overcharge, but also according to the remaining capacity of the battery to constant charge power, the battery damage and heat down the lowest.

In fact, charging the battery before it is exhausted does not cause any damage to the battery. If you have to wait until the battery capacity is exhausted and recharged, it will only waste your time and affect your experience.

A long time does not shut down

Although this may seem absurd, it is true. Although users are accustomed to being charged before the phone is “low battery” or automatically shutting down, the battery will not be damaged if the battery is fully charged, but this does not mean that the battery of the phone is healthy.

According to Apple’s “genius bar,” the technical staff said that although the battery does not turn off the phone for a long time is not harmful to the battery, but the standby iPhone is like an idling car engine, though not at full speed, but it is indeed in operation, still Will consume battery life.

So Apple’s “genius” have suggested that users can periodically shut down the iPhone to restart to improve battery life.

Do not clean the phone

Whether it is the iPhone or other cell phones, it is inevitable that the bacteria, which is often infused into the device. According to the statistics of idropnews, mobile phone bacteria content per square inch is even higher than the toilet.

In addition, if you do not clean your phone for a long time, dirt, debris (paper towels, thread, etc.) generated by daily use will cause poor contact with the phone and the key feedback is not sensitive.

So, in order to keep your phone in good condition, we recommend that you regularly clean the phone’s ports with a soft cloth and clean with non-metallic objects.

Do not update the phone system

Although Apple Push systems are frequently updated and require at least 10 to 15 minutes for each update, it is quite necessary to periodically update the system.

Especially when Apple fixed a major system vulnerabilities, add significant features, the new version of the system has played a crucial role. So when these “update reminder” box pops up, it is recommended to update the system as soon as possible.

Do not back up your device

Often users have “white apples” (of course, iOS itself) when using the iPhone due to improper handling or tampering with the system, and the content that was previously saved after reinstalling the system was erased.

Therefore, according to the actual situation on a regular basis to backup the phone is very important.

iCloud can automatically save your photos, memos, texts and so on. Of course, if you do not purchase the capacity expansion, iCloud Cloud will only have 5GB of storage space (iCloud will be extended to 50GB and you will pay 6RMB per month).

If you can develop the habit of regular backups, saving the data to your computer with iTunes is a good way to stay safe and cost-free.

Use too much storage space

Many users are accustomed to a large number of video, music, pictures, applications installed into the phone, and even some users of the phone as a major productivity tool, a large number of content stored in the phone.

However, Apple’s “geniuses” advise users to try not to “plug” the phone’s storage because they have limited storage space for application downloads and updates. Their advice is to eliminate unnecessary content to free up storage space when less than 10% of the total memory is left.

The shell was not removed during charging

The “misunderstandings” listed by idropnews are equally weird, but in fact they still have their own reasons. Many users have the habit of putting a protective cover on the phone, but the thickness of the protective cover will also affect the cooling of the phone when charging.

Apple has introduced in the official website iPhone, iPad and other equipment, “extreme temperature.” iPhone “best use temperature” is between 16 ℃ ~ 22 ℃, “extreme temperature” is below 0 ℃ or above 35 ℃, the user should avoid using the iPhone in “extreme temperature”, otherwise it will cause permanent damage to the battery .

In addition, Apple recommends that when the device generates too much heat while charging, remove the protective case first and then continue charging.

Use a third-party charger

Last year’s iPhone 6s “battery door” incident, so that the majority of users back to the focus of mobile phone battery security issues. However, in addition to the natural aging of the battery, long-term use of unofficial power adapter will also damage the battery.

Currently there are a lot of power adapters on the market that have not passed Apple’s official MFi certification. Although they are inexpensive, studies have shown that using these chargers can rapidly reduce battery life.

Therefore, professionals suggest that users should try to use Apple’s official or MFi certified power adapter to ensure the safety of cell phone charging and battery life